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Full text of "North Western Ontario (now known as "the disputed territory"), the districts of Thunder Bay and Algoma, a brief description, together with the opinions of prominent residents, old pioneers, eminent scientists,"

Pattullo, CreoT^e Rob son 
North Western Ontario 



North Western Ontario 



( sow KXOWX AS " THE DISI'L TED TERRITORY," ) 



OF 



THUNDER BAY AND ALGOMA 



A BRIEF DESCRIPTION 



B Y G . K ; P A T T U L L O , 



Together wi the Opinions of Prominent Kesidents, Old Pioneers, Eminent 

Scientists, Explorers, Special Correspondents, Travellers and others, 
uponT,he Territory's Varied Kesources Cereal, Mineral and 
Timber; and also of its Matchless Scenery. 



Prepared and Pablished in connection ivith the Ontario 
Goviirnment's Exhibit of ' 'e reals and Minerals at the 
principid Eastern Exhihilions of the Proviuce^. 



Von ^vthuv, (i>ut. : I. 

The Evening Herald Printing and Piihlisliing Com])any. | 

- — i 



Manitoba Weekly Free Press. 

THE MONARCH OF THE WEEKLIES. 

THE LARGEST PAPER IN CANADA! 

Three Handsome Casti Prizes 

OF 

$^500-#S00-^100. 

The Manitoba Weekly Free Pkess is jiinit enteriuf? upon its Twelfth Year of publi- 
cation. It has, therefore, heoii iclentitii'd with the Great Northwest almost from the time it 
became a part of the Doininioii. 

DuriiiiT the whole of this i)erio(l it has been an nnconiproinising advocate and defender 
of Northwest interests. WhatcMT was coMdiiciNe to the welfare of the country, that the- 
FuEK Pkes8 has appinn cd ; w hatcMT w a- iiiiiuii al Thpicto, that the FiiEE Press has'opposed— 
regardless of personal or party consequences. 

In this respect the Free Pke.ss will be in tlu' future the same as in the past. 

With every successive year improvements arc introduced, wherever possible. 

The Editorial articles of the Free Pri:ss are universally admitted to be models of excel- 
lence. As a iVcm'-pajx-r tlie Free Pt.ess is now in the ver}' fore-front. 

Every issue contains all the Local, l'] o\ iucial and Territorial News of the week; in the 
gathering' and compilation of whicli tli r.' ar.' cniiiloyed a strong office staff and a perfect 
arm}' of regular outside, trustworthy curn spondi'nts. 

The Free Press, through a lihV'ial cx-pcndit are of money, has certain exclusive rights- 
and privileges for securing Telegraphic News from other parts of Canada, the United States 
and the world generally, that enable it to present a better and fuller General News Budget 
than any other paper in the Northwest, and a week earlier than can be had through any 
outside paper. ^ _ • 

The'Miscellany is selected with the greatest possible care- -the aim being to supply rean- 
ing matter that shall interest every member of the household, and edifv the reader. 

"THE MONARCH OF THE W:^KL1ES^' is a designation to which the Weekly 
Free Press is justly entitled, as it is a larger sheet and contains more reading matter tlian 
any other paper publislied in ( anada. 

TO DOUBLE THE PlIESKNT CIECULATION, however, is the immediate ambition 
of the publishers of the Free Pres.s. 

Very special inducements are, therefore^ presented to become subscribers. 

While the regular subscription price of the Free Press is $2. .50 per annum— and ™od 
value at that^-for cash i-i ad\ ;uH-e payment for subscriptions of not less tiian one year, 20 per 
cent, discount is made- t'.iat is, ^-IM) for one year. 

As a further induc(Mnent, the Free J'uess will be supplied the remainder of the current 
vear FREE to sul)sciihers who send in one \ car's subscription— that is to sav, $2.(X) (cash in 
advance) will pay lor tUe Free Press from any time hereafter till JANUARY 1st, 1885. 

But, next to the e.xcellent value to be obtained in the paper itself for the price paid, the 
greatest inducement of all to subscribe for the Free Press at this time is the fact that the 
publishers have decided upon giving in Three Handsome (;A8H PK1ZES of $500.00, $200.00 
and $100.00 each, amongst their subscribers, the money ordinarily paid to canvassing agents 
at this season of the year. 

The Prize Scheme is explained in a few words:— 

The names of all subscribers to the Weekly Free Press, ui)on the subscription list on 
the 15th day of January next, not in arrears, but i)aid in aih ance at that date, and whose last 
paj'ments were for no't less than a whole year, will be drawn by lot u])on an absolutely fair 
and approved plan, so that the three prizes of §.")() ).iHi, :^ii)ij.Ui) and ^Ji:)l).00 shall be awarded to 
the three most fortunat(> subscribers. Immediately following the drawing the prizes will be 
paid, and the name^s of the \\ innei-.s, together with their addresses, published. 

Here is a i)aper, uni\ei-.-ally admitted to be good value for its regular price of $2.50 per 
annum, to be obtained Fifteen "Months for $2.00, and the cliaiu-e of winniui: one of three Cash 
Prizes of $500.00, §200.00 and :*;]iin.iii). i;iven to every suhsci ib(>r as a i)remium. 

Remember this ! The Free Pukss is the ])ai)er that every farmer in Manitoba and the 
Territories should have. It is the paper to send to friends in all parts of the world. It is 
the paper to read to gain information about tlie Canadian Northwest. 

Don't overlook the fact that those who subscribe the earliest get the most for their 
money, as Two Dollars (cash in advance) pavs from the date of subscribing till tht 
end of 1884. 

HOW TO SUBSCRIBE, 

Enclose TWO DOLLARS in Registeved Letter (writing name of Sub- 
scriber and Post Office very plainly) addressed to 

WINNIPF.G, MANITOBA. 



North Western Ontario 



( NOW KNOWN AS " THE DISPUTED TERRITORY," ) 



TBIE IDISTIESZOTS 



OF 



THUNDER BAY AND ALGOMA 



A BRIEF DESCRIPTION, 
BY Gf Rf PATTULLO, 



Together with the Opinions of Prominent Residents, Old Pioneers, Eminent 
Scientists, Explorers, Special Correspondents, Travellers and others, 
upon the Territory's Varied Resources, Cereal, Mineral and 
Timber; and also of its Matchless Scenery. 



Prepared and Published in connection luith the Ontario 
Governmenfs Exhibit of Cereals and Minerals at the 
principal Eastern Exhibitions of the Province 

_ — ^w;^ 

The Evening Herald Printing cand Publishing Company. 

ias3. 



'©muia 6U]jcrat 13irtus." 




Herbert Fairbairn Gardiner, 

Hamilton, Ontario. 

i 

I 



NORTH-WESTERN ONTARIO. 



[THE DISPUTED TERRITORY]. 



GEIN^ERAI^ FEATURES. 

To say that the country lying between Port Savanne and 
Cross Lake — and in general outline this is very similar 
to the country lying to the North of Lake Superior — 
was an earthly paradise, or a very promising agricultural 
region, would be a very grave erroi". It is not now, 
and never will bo, the home of a large and prosperous agricul- 
tural population. On th3 other hand, it is a great mistake to 
suppose that the Disputed Territory is destitute of good farm- 
ing land. From Rainy Lake to Lake of the Woods there is a 
broad belt of very fertile and lightly timbered land, that will 
furnish homes for a prosperous farming community of no 
insignificant dimensions. What the width of this belt of 
choice land is has not as yet been determined, but its length is 
not less than from 90 to ]()() miles. Formerly it was supposed ^ 
to have an average width of seven miles, but more recent and 
extended explorations by thoroughly reliable men have 
brought to light the fact that the belt of first rate farming 
land along the north bank of Rainy River is very much wider 
tlian it was at first supposed to be. Elsewhere the views of 
gentlemen well acquainted with this ])ortion of the Territory 
are given at some length, and the leader will be convinced 
that in the valley of Rainy River, at least,, farmers can make 
homes for themselves, that promise quite as well as the splen- 
did praiiie iarms of Manitoba and the Northwest. The cli- 
mate of this particular portion of the " debateable land " is 
peculiaily favorable to luxuriant vegetation. The summers, 
though not long, are hot and humid. This condition, together 



4 



with the rich black loam which overlays a clay and gravel sub- 
soil to a depth of from two to four feet, renders the region par- 
ticularly well adapted to the production of all sorts of cereals. 
Outside the Rainy Lake and Rainy River region there are no 
extensive and unbroken tracts of agricultural land of any 
value. It must not be understood, however, that among the 
rugged Laurentian bills no good land is to be found. 
Indeed there are many valleys of much more than ordinary 
fertility, but these are small and aie often found almost com- 
pletely shut in by sterile rocky ridges. There are hundreds of 
hillsides where rich succulent grasses grow in abundance, but 
even here the settler would not often find a farm that would 
compare in grain Y)roducing power with those that are found 
on the boundless prairies of the great Noi thwest. The settler 
who farms within the limits ot the Disputed Territory (except- 
ing in the Rainy Lake and Rainy River districts) will be the 
man who prefers hill and dale to broad plains, who prefers 
mixed agriculture to grain growing, or who prefers sheep or 
dairy farming to either. Here the farmer can enjoy Veautiful 
and picturesque scenery, excellent fishing, hunting and trap- 
ping, and should his inclinations lead him in that direction, he 
can occasionally devote a day or two to prospecting for econo- 
mic or precious minerals, with reasonable prospects of success. 
But it is not for one moment to be supposed that, except in the 
case of the district previously alluded to, the Disputed Territory, 
can hold out any very brilliant prospects to the farmer 
who expects to become rich through grain growing. 
On the otlier hand the abundance of natural shelter, the 
sweet short grasses growing on the hillsides, the unlimited 
ranges and the springs of sweet pure water to be found flowing 
from beneath the granite ridges, all point to this region as one 
destined by nature to be the home of a pastoral population. 
Any one who knows the farming sections of Northern Ontario 
and Quebec, knows that these Laurentian hills have been 
noted for products of mutton, cheese and butter, that have 
compared favorably with those of the oldest and most pros- 
perous sections of those province^:. Indeed it is a well known 
fact that to-day no better mutton is to be found in the Cana- 



5 



dian Market than that of the sheep fattened on the short sweet 
grasses of the Laurentian hills of North Hastinofs. 

Of the rich mineral prospects of this territory it is now 
almost unnecessary to speak. As far as it has been prospected 
it promises as well as any mining region in the known world; 
and as soon as the boiindaiy question shall have been finally 
settled, it will no doubt develope in such a way as to fully 
justify all the bright, predictions that have been made con- 
cerning its future. 

Throughout the g'^eater portion of the Disputed Territory? 
outside the Rainy Lakeand Rainy RiverDisfcrict,the country con- 
sistsof low rocky ridges and narrow fertile valleys, following each 
othei" in rapid succession, though the prospect is often beautified 
by pretty little lakelets many of which are fairly teeming with 
excellent fish. Hay marshes are also abundant and towards 
the eastern portion of the territory muskegs of very consider- 
able acreage are numerous. In the older portions of the 
Dominion the character and nature of these muskegs are not 
properly understood. If they were found in old Canada, they 
would be called cranberry marshes. With suitable efforts at 
drainage the greater part of these muskegs coidd be made rich 
and productive tracts ; but until land shall have become much 
more difficult to obtain in Canada than it is now, it is not at 
all probable that much money wWl be exj)ended in such enter- 
prises. The timber in the Disputed Territory though nut large 
is of a very fail* quality and on account of its proximity to the 
great Prairie Market must always be valuable. The traveller 
in passing through this countr}^ b}^ the railway is inclined to 
under-estimate it. Much of the timber along the line has been 
destroyed by the running of fires employed at first in clearing 
the right of way for the road. The game has been scared away 
by the large laboring population employed in the construction 
of the road, and altogether the country immediately adjacent 
to the railway presents a bleaker, drearier and more uninviting 
appearance than any other portion of the territory. 

One of the strong points of the Disputed Territory is 
Lake of the Woods. This is not merely owing to the immense 
value in the shape of economic and precious metals locked up 



6 



in its many thousands of wood-crowned and rock girdled islets, 
and not alone the value of the many square miles of unscathed 
timber to be found on its islands and shores ; it is not alone its 
value as a water way and outlet for the Rainy Lake and Rainy 
River District, and it is not alone that it is one of the most 
charming regions in which to take a summer holiday to be 
found anywhere in this continent, but it is all these combined* 

AGIlICt TT.TURAIj CAPABIT^ITIES OF THE 
AEGOMA DISTRICT. 

Below will be found the opinions of several prominent 
residents, old pionee's, eminent scientists, explorers, special 
correspondents, tiavellers and others, with reference to the 
capabilities, agricultural, stock, timber and mineral, as also of 
the matchless and picturesque scenery of North-Western On- 
tario and the adjoining Districts of Thunder Bay and Algoma. 
Referrincf to the x\gricultural capabilities of Algoma — 

John M. Hamilton, Esq., Crown Attorney at Sault Ste- 
Marie, a most competent and impartial critic, writes : 

" After a residence of upwards of twenty years in Algoma 
East, 1 can confidently say, that wheat and other grains aie as 
easily grown and ripened in many parts of the District as in 
the older and better settled portions of Ontario. 

" Hay is a most abundant and unfailing ciop, and is now 
selling in this neighborhood for less than eight dollars per ton. 

" The rivers and lakes afford a certain and easy livelihood 
to those fishermen who live on their banks and shores. 

" At this date of writing (August 3()th, 1883) we are hav- 
ing splendid harvest weather, with a high barometer and 
theimometer. 

" Oats, potatoes and all kinds of roots grow in all parts of 
this district most luxuriantly." 

W. H. Carney, Esq., Sheriff of the District of Algoma, 
who may be said to have travelled over every foot of the Dis- 
trict, and who has taken an active ])art in the ])ronjotion of its 
agricultural and othei* resoui'ces, writes : 

" Having had opportunities of visiting the Liain land, 
North Shore, and the principal islands in the eastern part of 
Algoma District during the present season, and being con- 
nect(>d with the District Agricultural Society, since organiza- 
tion in the year 1868, I noted with interest the great improve- 
ments m-ide in agriculture in thf^ district along the route of my 
travels. 1 never saw a better promise of an abundant yield. 



7 



There are some exceptions, owing to the wet spring, especially 
in the low lands and in the heavier soil, for want of proper 
drainage. The hay, clover and timothy crops are extra heavy 
and have been generally well hai vested. Fall wheat is mag- 
nificent and housed in splendid condition. Spring wheat 
equally good and is now being cut in good order. Oats prom- 
ise an abundant crop, which in some cases is being harvested. 
Peas are also being harvested, and the yield is splendid, with- 
out a blemish ; no pea bug has made its appearance in the 
district. Barley, rye, buckwheat and flax are equally good. 
Hops growing luxuriantly and heavy laden. The Indian corn 
is not as good this season as in former years. This is owing 
to the wet spring ; generally it has been a good crop. Root 
crops cannot be surpassed. In fact this district is hard to- be; 
equalled both in yield and quality. Garden vegetables are in 
unusual abundance and of the best quality. I notice the potato 
bug has made its appearance generally throughout the district. 
I obtained apples growing in several localities, principally on 
the islands. Strawberries, raspberries and gooseberries culti- 
vated and wild in abundance. Currants in all their varieties 
excellent. 

" Having resided in the District nearly twenty years, and 
from observations more or less during that time, I can unhesi- 
tatingly assert that the District of Algoma is well adapted for 
agricultural pursuits. Having abundance of good water, and 
being well timbered, the grazing is of the best quality. The 
District is troubled very seldom with frosts which injure crops 
no frost being in the ground on the opening of spring, seed can 
be sown early in April, and where fall ploughing has been 
done the ground is ready for the seed as soon as the snow 
leaves the ground. Grass springs up immediately, and cattle 
can be turned loose to graze for themselves." 

Lorenzo Londry, a well-known farmer, near Sault Ste. 
Marie, says : 

" I have lived in Algoma for some eight years ; I formerly 
lived in the county of Grey ; I find the winter healthier here 
than in Ontario, for the simple reason that the weather is not 
so changeable, and is dry under foot. This country is well 
adapted for grain growing ; we have fine crops this season. 
I have just arrived home from a trip in Eastern Ontario, and I can 
safely say that the crops there are not so good as ours generally. 
The world cannot beat our peas ; consequently w^e can raise 
any amount of pork ; also stock of all kinds and dairy pro- 
ducts ; for we can grow any amount of hay and the pasture is 
always green — never dried up and parched with the sun as 



8 



below. We also get refreshing showers of rain more frequently 
than below. As far as vegetables are concerned, I never saw 
better. We do not have to feed our stock here any longer than 
below ; as soon as the snow leaves there is plenty of I'eed for 
cattle, as vegetation starts before all the snow is gone, and the 
fields continue green till the snow falls about the first of De- 
cember, and winter sets in. We have plenty of hard wood for 
fuel, cedar for fencing and pine for building purposes; a.nd 
beautiful streams which afibrd plenty of good water for man 
and for beast. Doctors make out very poorl}^ here as the 
people are very healthy. Any man can do well here if he 
chooses to work ; I never was in any country where there was 
more money for less work. For a new country we have good 
schools and churches of nearly every denomination, — every- 
thing to make one comfortable and happy." 

Chas. J. Bampton, Esq., Registrar at Sault Ste. Marie, 
writes : 

" I have been a resident of Sault Ste. Marie, in the central 
portion of the District of Algoma, since 1860. During that 
period I have travelled on foot, or by canoe on the lakes, over the 
greater part of the neighborhood, that is to say the tract lying 
between Batchawaning Bay on Lake Superior and the River 
Thessalon on Huron. I have been Assessor of the Municipality 
of Sault Ste. Marie, Secretary of the Algoma Electoral Division 
Society ; have had an extended experience as an Appraiser, 
both of town and country property ; I now occupy the position 
of Registrar of Deeds foi' Algoma. 

" With reference to agriculture, I would say that 1 do not 
believe that from its broken and rocky formation this will ever 
become, in the full acceptation of the term, a first-class or even 
second class farming district. The whole surface of the country 
is traversed by ranges of Laurentian and Huronian rocks. 
The valleys lying between these ranges are no doubt fertile, 
and capable of supporting thousands of families, and all those 
who have already settled here are prosperous. All the coarser 
grains thrive well, viz : oats, peas, beans, etc., — wheat I do not 
consider a good crop generally. As a grass producing country 
this tract cannot be surpassed. Hay is a sure and generally a 
heavy crop. Potatoes, carrots, mangold wrutzel, tuT'nips and 
all root crops are produced in abundance and of superior qual- 
ity. All the smaller garden fruits do well, such as strawberries, 
currants and gooseberries ; some apples have been produced 
here (from seedling trees generally), but have not proved 
a success. My own opinion is that apples, pears and plums are 
not to be produced here in remunerative quantities. 



9 



" The climate here is delightful during the summer and 
autumn, the winters are rigorous, the thermometer falling to 30 
or 35° below O fahrenheit, but this extreme range seldom 
endures more than three days in succession, when 
the temi)erature again rises to its normal state of 
12 to 8 degrees below in the night, and rising often 
above the freezing point during the day. I consider that to a 
person of ordinary robust frame and constitution the climate 
of this region is most agreeable ; I prefer it to the climate of 
the Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair counties. 

" The streams, rivers, inland small lakes, and all the wa- 
ters abound with fish of excellent quality and great variety. 
The waters of Superior and Huron afford at their fisheries em- 
ployment to hundreds of people, and the fish form an article 
of trade in which large amounts of capital are invested, yield- 
ing renumerative profits. 

The forests have cariboo. I.e. American rein-deer, some 
red-deer (cervas virginensw ), 'dnd all the fur-producing anim- 
als furnish employment to the trapper or anuisement to the 
sportsman. Among the feathered ganje are to be found water- 
fowl of almost every species, partridge or ruffled grouse (teheao 
vetttullus) in myriads, also the s])ruce partridge {teheao canad- 
ttlsis), the willow grouse {teheao salicita — white in winter), 
also the Alpine hen ; all the lattei very abundant. 

" I like Algoma as a residence for its healthfulncss, its 
beautiful scenery, its quiet, peaceful and law-abiding inhabi- 
tants. Altogsther Sault Ste Maire and its vicinity is one of 
the most enjoyable >ummer resorts on the lakes. 

" In conclusion I would say I have not seen any poor .set- 
tler who came here and took up land, who does not acknow- 
ledge that he has improved his circumstances and increased 
his means." 

Judge Walter McCrea, of Sault Ste. Marie, whose 
thorough knowledge of the Algoma District has been gathered 
from years of travel and careful personal observation, writes 
as follows ; 

" I have resided at Sault Ste. Marie, in the District of Al- 
goma, now nearly thirteen years and have a pretty good know- 
ledge of the resources of the Eastern part. From Goulais Bay 
on Lake Superior, as far as the country is settled eastward to 
near Mississauga River on Lake Huron on the main shore, the 
land, although somewhat broken, produces almost all the crops 
which arc usually grown in the older settled portions of Ont- 
ario, with the exce])ti on notably of Indian corn. Owing to the 
continuous lying snows of the winter the fall wheat is never 



10 



wintev-killed, and 1 liavc seen as tine specimens grown liere as 
anywhere in tlie Province. S})ring wheat, barley, oats, and 
peas are somewhat late in ripening, but are usually fairly 
abundant crops. The pea crop is noted for its tine sample, and 
is tree from the weevil. Hoot crops are excellent. 

" Hay is generally good and the country fairly adapted to 
grazing purposes. What I have said res|)ecting the north 
shoie will apply ecpially to the islands of Manitoulin, Bari'ie, 
Cockburn and St. Joseph, with the addition that they have 
a limestone formation rendering the soil wai-mer and ])rodu(;- 
ing a (piicker and earlier growth. Small fruits abound and al- 
though a few apples have been produced in favorite localities, 
other large fruits are not attempted to be grown. Generally, 
with regard to the agricultural capabilities of the [)art of which 
1 liave spoken, T think it may fairly compare with the valley 
oi the Ottawa from tlie Chats upwards. 

" There are large tracts of good pine in this region and 
lumbering is carried on to a very considerable extent. Copper, 
iron, and argentiferous galena have been discovered in various 
places, but with the exception of Bruce Mines, where large 
([uantities of copper have been extracted, its mining resources 
may be said to be undeveloped. It is ho[)ed and reasonably 
believed that the completion of the C. P. Railway through the 
District, and of one to Sault Ste Marie, connecting with others 
on the south shoi'c of Lake Superior, will give an impetus to 
the progress of tht^ country which it has not before felt. 

" With regard to the westerji ])orti()n of the district, 1 
have but little personal knowledge, but in a general way, he- 
sides being on the higliwa}^ to our Great Noi-th-West, 1 am led 
to believe that its chief national resources will be its lumber- 
ing and mining capabilities." 

Mr. Vj. BT(J<;rNS, Editor and Publisher of the Algoma 
n oncer, writes thus of Eastern Algoma, including the islands 
adjacent to the Canadian shore : 

" Eor upwards of a <|uarter of a century the name "Algoma 
District ' has been a synonym for over one half of the Province 
of Ontario, and which has remained to a very great extent a 
veritable terra incognita. Until about tifteen years ago this 
extensive territoiy, embracing over 000 miles of coast line, if 
spoken of at all, was termed 'a God-forsaken countiy.' The 
Hon. John Sandtield Macdonald thought it such a worthless 
herritage tliat he sei'i(^usly contemplated taking away our 
'tem})orary judicial' organization and withdrawing all Gov- 
erinnent aid ; and not until the year 1(S76, under Mr. Mowat's 
Administration, were any active steps taken hy the Provincial 



11 



Government to develope this important part of Ontario. But 
in the meantime, the pioneer work of settlement had been go- 
ing on and ' S([uatters ' had poked their way into the district, 
forming the nucleus of the settlements, wide apart from each 
other, of to-dsij. Slowly the current of emigration turne<i in 
this direction as the pioneers sent out reports of the fruitful - 
ness of the soil and the favorable climate. Grain of all kinds 
was found to do well, frost or snow very seldom injuring 
wheat, and midge, weevil, and hessian fly are unknown. Bar- 
ley, oats and rye produce uiicoiunioidy well ; peas, free from 
worms, grow to a v^ery remarkal)]e size, yielding very large 
crops. Roots and vegetables sui'pass everything seen in the 
older settlements. Long experience here shows the district to 
be 'pa/i^ exci'iUoic", thk dairy f.\km ok Oxtaluo. Owing to the 
fre([uent heavy dews a })arched pasture field is nevet- seen, and 
the commonest breeds of cattle roanung 'in the connnons ' are 
kept in excellent condition. Every variety of soil is to be had, 
from heavy clay to sand and gravel, and strange to say, the 
sandy soils yield very fine crops for 3^ears witliout any per- 
ceptible deprecation. The country is broken by rocks and 
bluffs, l)ut the intervening valleys are exceedingly feitile. 
Twenty years ago large sections were swept by forest fires, and 
the second growth is poplar, wc-W adapted for paper manufac- 
ture, soon to become v^aluable. Explorers tell us that the pine 
forests northward are very valuable, immense 'limits' being 
ah-eady in the hands of lumber companies. The flsheries are a 
])i-ofitable industiy, aiid pri^periy guai'dcd are likely to remain 
so for many years. At Manitoulin Island, Cockburn and St. 
Josejdi's islands, Mississagua, Thessalon, Bruce Mines, Fr^rt Fin- 
ley, Sault Ste. Marie, Prince, ({oulais Bay and Batchewaning 
thriving settlements have been established, and the atiricultur- 
al jiopulation is counted by tens of thousands, with room for 
thousands more.' 

A(ilM( ULTl HAL CAPABILITIES OF TIIL 
Till NDKH IJAY DISTHK T. 

John Aitken, of Poi t Arthur, whose lono- residence in 
the District and accurate obsei-vation may be gathered from 
the following : 

I came to Thunder Bay District in LSliD from Lancaster, 
CJleiigary, and have been a resident here evei- since. The ])re- 
sent site of Port Arthur was then woods, and I was obliged to 
underbrush enough of ground oji whicii to ))it(rh my tent. The 
only buildings were the (ioverrnnent building; now occupied by 
the Ontario Bank, a small store occupied by Marks Bros., and a 



12 



third small building, the boarding-hcuse of Mr. Flaherty, on 
the present site of the Pacific Hotel. These constituted the 
then town. I was sent out to the Mattawin in the spring of 
1870 to push forward the construction of the Dawson Road, in 
order to allow Col. Wolsley and the Red River Expedition to 
go through to Fort Garry to quell the Riel rebellion. I cleared 
away a plot on which the Col. could erect his tents, and my at- 
tention was first directed to the fertility of the soil by observ- 
ing how abundantly the hay afterwards sprang up on the spot 
where the troops had encamped. In the following year, 1871, 
I planted a pail full of potatoes, taken from the steamer ' Al- 
goma,' and the yield was remarkably good. In 1872 I remov- 
ed my family to this tarm and I have farmed there ever since. 
All kinds of crops, including fall wheat, have done well, and 
they have never suffered from frost. The climate in the dis- 
trict, although severe, is steady, and I have not felt the cold 
any more than in Eastern Ontario. Winds have been some- 
what more freequent during the past two years than formerly. 
A great advantage to the farmers in the district is the high 
price they obtain for their products. I have never sold pot- 
atoes for less than a dollar per bushel, and last year's crop 
was sold for a dollar and a half Turnips 40 cents per bush- 
el. Beets $2.00 per bbl. Grain, which is used for local pur- 
poses, brings quite the average price to be obtained elsewhere. 
Peas grow specially well and there are no worms. There are no 
potato bugs either. The soil at the Mattawin is a heavy clay ; it 
requires to be broken in the fall and thus pulverized by the 
frost. It is also improved by manure, and although heavy to 
work, is extremely durable. In a word I consider this district 
well suited for poor but industrious men, who have had exper- 
ience in farming, and in proof of this I give yon the case of a 
neighbor of my own, Matthew Hawkins, who, without any 
means whatever, took up a lot at the land office here (the total 
cost being $1, in addition to the necessary settlement duties 
for five years, after which the property becomes his) and who 
now estimates his crop and improvements at $400. The chief 
difficulty that settlers have to contend against the first year 
is the scarcity ;ind high price of hay and oats. This prevents 
them from being able to keep teams of their own, and it is too 
expensive to hire them.'' 

Mr. Scott Humphrey, Reeve of the Township of Oliver, 
says : 

" I settled in Thunder Bay District in 1871. Have observ- 
ed the capabilities of the land in Ujc Townships of Oliver and 
neighboring districts. Every cereal, wheat, barley, oats 



13 



/ and peas, and all kinds of i-oots and vegetables can be grown 
here just as well as in the older sections of Ontario. The soil 
is a rich eiay loam, just such as would be called good wheat 
land in the East. A part of the township has suffered from 
fires which have destroyed the soil somewhat. This requires 
manuring, but the virgin soil is as good as can be found any- 
where. There is enough timber for farm use, and the climate 
is, I consider, good. I have never known the crops to suffer 
fi-om frosts, and they have always come to maturity, although 
a little later than in the East." 

TITE MIXF.KAL RESOURCES OF THFXDER 
BAT DISTRICT. 

Judge Robkrt Laird, of Port Arthur, who has for years 
warmly interested himself in the development of the varied 
lesources of North-Western Ontario, writes thus : 

A very erroneous impression generally prevails as to the 
natui'al I'esources of Thunder Bay, particularly in regard to the 
extent of its mineral resources. Its mineral wealth is doubtless 
the richest on the American continent, and would have long 
a«:o attracted more o-eneral attention, but for its isolatetl 
location. The following metals and minerals are found in very 
large paying quantitips, and those heretofore properly developed 
have proved a source of immense revenue to the owners. The 
Silver Islet Mine took out over $3,<K)(),()0(>, at very little 
expense. 

" The Rabit Mountain Mine proves to be richer than the 
Silver Islet. It is of black Silurian slate formation ; large 
nuggets of solid black silver weighing several pounds have 
been found. So far, the vein is 40 feet wide, and only one 
wall found as yet ; a great quantity of ore is in sight. 

" Stasiding first among the richest discoveries of precious 
metals is the Jack Fish Gold and Silver Mine. It is operated 
by the Huronian Mining (Company who work it, not as a 
speculation, but as a rich paying industry. The working vein 
is 8 feet wide, and consists of free oold, or what is known as 
Sylvanite ore, the richest ore known to miners ; $49 is tlie 
lowest assay to the ton, and $5,971 the highest. 

" In 1871, free gold was discovered at the height of land, 
but owing to the impos.sibility of getting in machinery or 
away quartz, it was not worked. The Diorite D^^ke from 
Silver Islet to McKellar's Point on the main shore extends for 
30 miles and all veins crossing it are rich in silver. McKellar's 
Point is being operated by a company with a capital of 
$1,()00,()0(). Pie Island is stocked for $5,()00,0()0. 



14 



" Native copper is found in large quantities, and is worked 
l)y an Englisli company. The copper is similar to that found 
on the south sliore of Lake Superior and is ^dready increasing 
tile wealth of the o])erators. 

" Iron is found in endless quantities V2 miles from Port 
Arthur, and as coal can be laid down at this port for S3.2() per 
ton, it will not be long until all the iron and castings used in 
th(^ North- West will be luanufactured in this district. 

" Zinc, massive iron ]iyrites, suitable foi- sulphuric acids, ai'e 
found in great (piantities ; also baryta or heavy spar for ])aint, 
])lumbago, soapstone, and a su|)erior quality of old red sand- 
stone, owned by the Nee])igon Sandstone Company. 

The property of this company is a very valuable one and 
contains an almost inexhaustable (quantity of fine old red 
sandstone. The island is about a mile and a half in length by 
half a mile in width ; when one sees the immense mountain of 
brown free-stone it strikes the beholder with astonishment, for 
right there in ])lain sight is enough beautiful stone of the very 
best (piality, to build u]) one of the laigest cities in the world, 
and indeed this wonderful quariy must be seen to V)e fully 
a])preciated. Tlie rock face is from (iO to 100 feet high in 
])laces, and there is the further advantage that it does not 
require any strip])ing. Large amounts of the same have 
ah'eady been shipped to Chicago for substantial building ]^ur- 
poses and ornamentation. It is believed that this Nee])igon 
stone can be ilelivered in Toronto or any of the lake cities at 
a much lower- |n'ice than the New England stone, and nearly, 
if not quite as cheajdy as the Ohio sandstone, while in lasting 
(pialities as a building material, it is far su])erior to both these 
stones." 

THE MIXEKAL RF.SOinRCES OF LAKE OF TIIK 
WOODS DISJ UK 

Mr. Davtd K. BiiowN, who has s])ent much time in 
making careful exjdorations and whose competency to form an 
accurate judgment is undoubted, wi'ites as follows of the gold- 
fields of Lake of the Woods': 

" ' Far off pastures look green ' is a proverb wh:; :i requires 
little adaptation to make it sufficient to account for the com- 
parative neglect in which the Lake of the Woods gold-field 
lias lain since its discovery. The men who made the first 
surveys had little means and if ])ossil)le less knowledge of 
minning. The result was that their praiseworthy effoits at 
development were comparatively unproductive. It is yet 
considerably less than a year since capital was brought to 



15 



bear in the cx])loration of some of the better ' pros|)ects ' and 
it can be truthfully said that in no one instance has the result 
in any way impaired the confidence felt by the practical men 
at the helm of the various undertakings. By the erection of 
temporary machinery three of the incorporated companies 
have satisfactorily demonstrated tliat the auriferous and argen- 
tiferous quartz of this region carries the metals in j)aying 
quantities. The veins are all true fissures and sinking has 
demonstrated that increased deptli gives increased richness 
witli an increased body of ore. Some of these fissure veins 
cut the formation and others lie with it. Some of the veins 
are contact veins, and it would be difhcult at the present stage 
of development to say whether the vein traversing a body of 
diorite, or the contact vein is the richer. The milling of quartz 
in this district has demonstrated that all of the ore is more or 
less base and cannot be heated to advantage by the free milling 
process. Wliile tliere is often a large percentage of free gold 
in the rock, the major portion of the nobler metals is carried in 
the form of sulphurets of iron, copper, etc. For the treatment 
of iron sulphurets roasting furnaces will be required, the oxidi- 
zation of the ii'on freeing the gold. Roasting will also be the 
moi-e profitable method of making the commcmer ([ualities of 
(topper sulphurets. But in this district there are copper sul- 
plun-ets cairying over twenty per cent of this metal, for the 
treatment of which the water-jacket furnace may be profitably 
brought into requisition. In one of the mines the ore carries 
such a large percentage of galena and zinc that the most pro- 
fitable method of working will likely be found to be smelting, 
su[)pleniented by the Gei'man zincing process. The baseness 
of the ore at once destroys all chance of an inexpensive treat- 
ment such as that employed mainly in the Black Hills ; b'lt 
the richness and body of the ore hold out satisfactory indu- 
cements for the erection of reduction works. In no new 
mining camp have more tem])ting sui'face showings evev 
invited the investment of capital. The following extract from 
a letter of Professor Chapman, Canada's distinguished minera- 
logist, is no more remarkable than many others that might be 
given from men of lesser note, but thoronghly reliable : 

" ' Sauq:>le No. 3 contains pei' ton of 2000 lbs. no less than 
2 t oz. 10 dwts. of j)ure gold in addition to a httle silvei-: This 
corresponds in value to $50(3 per ton of ore. Thei-e was not 
the sliglitest sign of visible gold in the broken uj) fragments 
of the sam})le, so that this large result did not couu; from the 
accidental presence of a large |)article or two of free gold, but 
from the invisible gold dissendnated through the vein stone 
generally.' 



16 



" This rock was described by Professor Chapman as ' inter- 
mixed (juartz, calcite and green chloritic slate, showing a few 
specs of pyrites in places, but no visible gold.' 

"Had not the Canadian Northwest fallen into temporary 
financial disorganization in consequence of over speculation in 
land, the mining industry of the Lake of the Woods to-day 
would have been manifesting greater vitality. But it is only 
a question of time until the picturesque shores of the Lake will 
echo the roar of the falling stamps. Thus far I estimate the 
ex[)enditure of Winnipeg capital in the mines at $95,()( K), a sum 
which elsewhere in dealing with this same class of rock is not 
deemed more than sufficient for thoroughly testing ore loca- 
tion. The money requisite to develope the industry is lying 
idle in the coffers of American mining magnates, who profess 
reluctance to embark in the work of develoi)ment owing to the 
absence of patents for the lands. I have received assurances 
from men of eminent standing that they are prepared to invest 
theii- cai)ital as soon as they can be assured of quiet possession in 
a more satisfactory shape than that contained in the Order-in- 
Council concerning priority of entry. I would earnestly urge 
a speedy settlement of this vexed question, as the evil to be 
worked by delay is incalculable and may be irremediable. The 
work of opening up this rich gold-tield would also be facilitated 
by the publication of a cliart showing the surveys made, most 
of these being tied-on to points not at preseiit on the map, or 
to other locations, the precise position of which is known to 
only a few explorers and others closely identified with the 
mining industry. The mining law of Ontario, if it errs, errs on 
the scoi e of liberality, and 1 am sure that if it were so amended 
as to restrict the size of the location to, say, 150< ) feet along the 
lead, with a width of (i()<> feet, and includnigall dips, spurs and 
angles, those explorers who have already made entry for much 
larger tracts would cheerfully consent to the reduction, w^ere 
the excess in cost of survey of the larger tract allowed to form 
part payment of the smaller allotment. The material interests 
of all concerned would also be promoted by the imposition of 
a stated amount of development to be accomplished within a 
certain period of the allotment, and the performance of this 
work to be antecedent to the issuance of a patent. In the 
Lake of the Woods we have a cjreat heritage and it will be 
more than a pity if the money invested should be rendered 
practically waste from reasons which are within the control of 
those who are placed in authority over us." 



17 



THE PIC TIJIIE8QITK SCEXKIIV OF l.AKE 
THE WOODS, JIAI^s Y EAKE Al^l) 
RAINY JlIVEli- 

Mil. W. H. Williams, so widely and favorably known as 
the clever and brilliant descriptive correspondent of the Tor- 
onto Globe in the North-West, writes thus of the matchless 
scenery of the Lake of the Woods : 

" This morning I took passage on board the steamer 
CoackicJdiuj for the purpose of visiting the Rahiy River coun 
try and Fort Frances, as well as for the purpose of seeing 
something more of tlie charming scenery of Lake of the Woods. 
In former letters 1 have had occasioii to refer to the beautiful 
scenery of this great North- Western archi]jelago, but volumes 
would fail to convey to the readei' an idea of its bewildering 
beauties. 

" The afternoon has been sunny and warm, with here ani.! 
there a fleecy cloud islet floating in a June sky uf the deepest 
and brightest blue. There has been just wind enough to raise 
a shining golden ripple on the broad sunlit traverses that occa- 
sionally open out between the clustering groups of smaller 
islands, while the narrow shadowed inlets between towering 
walls of s|)ruce-crowned rocks have slept dark, glassy, and 
tranquil. One could never weary of such lovely, ever-clianging 
scenery. Now the sides of tlie steamer are almost brushing 
the fantastically-coloui-ed mosses that clothe stee[), rocky walls 
on either side, while the hoarse snorting of her exhaust wakes 
a score of echoes above and all aiound her and the next 
moment slie is ploughing a broad sunht held of rippling, 
burnished gold. Now she is threading lier winding ])atli 
between yellow moss-covered islets of solid rock, and now she is 
slowly creeping in and out among jagged reefs whose black 
slimy jaws just [)eer above the shining waters as th(^ugli they 
belonged to huge sub-marine monsters that were waiting to 
seize and drag her away down to their horrid lairs in the 
gloomy caves below. Long after tlie setting sun had set in 
such a flood of orange and ])ur[)le as is only seen in these 
northern latitudes, and cast a dainty net- work of light and 
shadow upon the dancing waters away to the westward, but 
wliile still a soft glow of lemon gold lit uj) the North- W^estern 
horizon, the steamer " slowed down," and Anally stopped, and 
then the shar[) rattling of " running chains " told that she had 
come to anchor in the shelter of an island al)Out two miles 
from the edge of the " Big Traverse." Though it is after ten 
o'clock meridian time the suidight has not quite faded from 
the north and west, while the young moon lights up a silver 



18 



skimniering path away to the southward, whence comes a co 
bi'eeze fresh from the broad traverse toward which long vistas 
are opening out between far-off islets and fading away into 
misty space. 

A]S^ EXTREMELY FEI1T1I.E DISTRICT. 

Fort Frances is at the head of navigation on Rainy River, 
and some 80 or 90 miles from its mouth. During the trip I 
have just completed I have been able to learn something by 
personal observation concerning the country through which the 
rivei' runs, and from what I have seen I must in candour ad- 
mit that for settlers of moderate or small means I do not know 
of a spot in the Dominion offering a more inviting field for 
immigration. Here there aie no prairies, it is true, and every 
foot of land that the settler cultivates must first be cleared. 
On the other hand, however, the soil is of practically inexhaust- 
ible fertility while every tree on the settler's claim is of more or 
less immediate value to him. Here he has material for buildings, 
fencing, and fuel ready to his hand, and yet the labor of clear- 
ing off this light timber is comparatively triffing. There are 
few, if any large stumps to remove, and scarcely a log to be 
seen that two men could not handle with comparative ease. 
The lumbermen enoao-ed in these districts brino- a market for 
all the farm produce he can raise right to his own door. In 
fact all the farmer has to do to sell his produce is to step into 
his birch canoe, paddle out and hail almost any passing tug 
and sell for cash every dollar's worth of produce he has to 
spare. But should the rapid influx and increasing prosperity 
of settlers so increase the supply of farm produce as to make it 
outrun the demand, the Rainy River farmer has cheap and un- 
broken water communication with Rat Portage, during 
the whole season of navigation, where he can put his 
produce on board the C. P. R. for the markets of the 
world. That he will ever have occasion to do this, however, 
is extremely doubtful. There is very little farming country 
near Rat Portage, and it will take far more than the farm sup- 
plies of Rainy River to meet the wants of the very large min- 
ing, lumbering and manufacturing population that is sure to 
pour in there within the next few years. 

" The fertility of the soil in this region is wonderful, a fact 
amply proven by the fact that the Hudson Bay Company has 
raised excellent crops off land that has been under crop stead- 
ily for over forty years without receiving a single pound of 
manure. Indeed the settlers now farming along the Canadian 
shore of the river raise magnificent crops every year. 
The winters are severe, but the locations are so shelt- 



19 



ered and fuel is so plentiful that settlers should have no 
difficulty in keeping warm all winter. The summers, though 
not long, have always proved sufficiently long for the thorough 
ripening of all sorts of crops and garden produce, the growth 
of which is greatly promoted by the warm, humid summers. 
At present, of course, that great barrier to the prosperity of 
this region, the unsettled boundary question, operates bane- 
fully here as in all other portions of the Disputed 
territory ; but, notwithstanding all this, the Rainy River 
settlements are steadily growing. Even now, however, 
some Canadian settlers are locating on the Minnesota side of 
the river, where they consider they can be moderately sure of 
their titles, even if they have to swear allegiance to a foreign 
power to secure them." 

OPimOT*^^ OF A MISSIOIS^ARY WHO HAS RESIDED 
TWENTY YEARS IN THE DISTRICT OF AEGOMA. 

Rev. RICHA.RD Baxter, Missionary of the Society of 
Jesus, and a most careful observer, writes : — 

" My experience from 1863 on the borders of Lake Hurom 
North Shore and Sault Ste. Marie River : I am aware that on 
St. Joseph's Island which divides the North Shore from the 
South Shore channels, that thei-e are many portions of fertile 
land and some rocky, yet all good for pasture. In the neigh- 
borliood of the Bruce Mines and Thessalon, as well ah Mississaga 
River, there are fertile lands. Arouiid Sault Ste. Marie wheat 
lipened. Fine vegetables were raised at the Catholic Mission, 
Garden River. There is much good land for farming from 
Sault Ste. Marie to the Bruce Mines, on a forty mile road. 

" 1872. — My experience from 1(S72 at Thunder Bay neigh- 
borhood, &c : I saw Mr. John Aikins cultivating grain and 
vegetables with success on the borders of the Matewan River, 
where the Dawson Road crosses said river, twenty-six miles 
and a half from Prince Arthur's Landino-. In 1872 I saw oats 
i-ipen at the Askondigan Station, near the Askondigan River, 
on the Dawson Route, about forty miles from Prince Arthur's 
Landing. At the Kaministiquia River Biidge, twenty-one 
miles from P. A. Landing, the Reid family succeeded since 1871 
in raising good crops of grain and vegetables. On the Body 
farm near Finmark or Sunshine Station, I saw well-developed 
wheat and ripe, and excellent vegetables. Barley is success- 
fully cultivated in the vicinity. The country for miles is 
rolling and heavy clay. Grass is abundant along the railway 
and in the whole country many islands in the inland lakes are 
fertile. For instance in the Wabigoon Lake, two hundred 



20 



miles from P. A. Landing, Indians cultivate good crops of fine 
]>otatoes ; also in Kagle Lake, two hundred and thirty odd 
miles from P. A. Landing. Tn the Townshij) of Oliver there is 
a fertile l)elt in close proximity to a speckled trout stream, 
where Captain Oorbett's farm shows off* to advantage. In 
many localities bush fires have burnt off tlie surface soil, thus 
necessitating moi-e careful and studied cultivation. On the 
borders of the Kaministiquia River at Town Plot, Fort William, 
Sill's Farm, Lidian Catholic Mission on right bank of the 
Kaministiquia River, the alluvial requires good cultivation and 
is greatly remunerative. 

PORT ARTIIITR AXJ> TITUNDEK BAY. 

" P. A. Landing is a beautiful site fo'- the outlet of the 
North- West on the C. P. R., at the head of Canadian Lake 
navigation. Its atmosphere is salubrious ; the scenery almost 
enclianting — Thunder Cape, Pie Island, McKay's Mountain, 
Rabbit Mountain, forming about a semi-circle of culminating 
])oints of admiration and |)ictui'esqueness unrivalled on Lake 
Suj)erior, oi' perhaps the world. The Amphiatheatral foi'm of 
Prince Arthur's Landing site is one of ursurpassed grandeur. 
The view from the surrounding heights inspires feelings of 
delight. . 

In the neighborhood of Prince Arthur's Landing and 
Thunder Bay there are numerous speckled trout streams. 
Health and amusement are here guaranteed to the traveller in 
search of repose and relaxation of mental effort. From Prince 
Arthur's Landing to Red Rock on the Nepigon Bay there are 
occasional ])()]-tions of arable land, especially forty miles below 
Prince Ai'tiun-'s Landing. Red Rock is about sixty-four miles 
below P. A. Landing. Near Red Rock is Black Sturgeon 
River, requiring dredging over the bar into Thunder Bay. 
There is some good land near Red Rock. Lake Superioi- antl 
Thunder Bay are noted for precious stones and ])recious min- 
erals. Silver Islet, aljout three-quarters of a mile from the 
shore, has produced an immense (piantity of silver. The Islet 
is for-ty feet long, sixteen feet wide, twelve feet in length, and 
about 9 feet above water; the remaining portion was scarcely 
above the water level. The whole has been cribbed, and con- 
tains several large boarding houses and offices. Fresh water 
oozed through the mine crevices down to a depth of 900 feet. 
Below that to 1 150 feet salt water was found. I send a bottle, 
which I cei'tify to as genuine. In several caves in Lake Su- 
perior alum deposits have been found. Perhaps alum and salt 
preserve that great Island sea from containing putrified waters. 



21 



THK tJNSF.TTI.F.J) r,OFNDATlY RETAKMIS^O 
DEVKLOPMF.I^T OF MIXFTJAT^ KESOl llCKS. 

Mr. E. M. RiDEOUT, of Rat Portage, writing of a mining 
enterprise in which he is interested there, says : 

" An early settlement of the boundary question, which is 
such an important factor in retarding mining interests in Lake 
of Woods District, would solve the question of opening this 
and many other valuable pro])erties." 

FM I XFX T TESTlMi )X Y. 

Sir George Simpson, who, some years ago, made an over- 
land journey of the Rainy Rivei' district, speaks thus of its 
producing capabilities : 

"The river during the day's march, passed through forests 
of elm, oak, ])ine, birch, &c., being studded with isles not less 
lovely and fei-tile than its banks, and many sj^ots reminded us 
of the rich and (juiet scenery of England. The joaths of the 
portages wero spangled with violets, ]-oses, and many other 
wild flowers, while the currant, the gooseberiy, raspbej-ry, 
])lum, cherry, and even the vine, were al)undant. ' 

The Rev. Principal Oraxt, in his ' Ocean to Ocean," 
bears similar testiuiony : 

" The tioi'a is much the same as in oui- Eastern Provinces; 
the soil light, with a surface covering of peaty or sandy hmm, 
and a subs<jil of clay, fairly fertile, and ca))able of being easily 
cleared. The vegetation is varied, wild flowers being specially 
abundant, raspberries, currants, gooseberries, and tomatoes : 
flowers like the convolvulus, roses, a great ])rofusion of asters, 
wild kalh)S, water lillies on the ponds, wild viches on the rocks 
in the streams, and generally a rich vegetation. It is a good 
country for emigrants of the farmer class. The road, too, is 
first-rate, and the market is near. The Valley of the Kaminis- 
tiquia is acknowledged to be a splendid farming country. Tim- 
othy grass was growing to the height of four feet on every 
vacant spot from chance seeds. A bushel and a half of barley 
which was all a squatter had sown, was looking as if it could 
have taken a prize at an Ontario Exhibition." 

Prof. Macoun says : 

" I could see nothing in the flora to lead me to doubt the 
feasil)i1ity of raising all the cereals in the valley of the Kami- 
nistiquia, a valley said by Prof Hind to contain an area of 
more than 20,<K)() acres, exclusive of Indian reservations." 



S. J. DAWi^'ON', M.P., in 187-t testified as follows . 

" Alluvial land of the best description extends along the 
banks of Rainy River in an unbroken stretch of 75 or 80 miles 
from Rainy Lake to Lake of the Woods. In this tract where 
it borders on the river there is not an acre unsusceptible of 
cultivation. At intervals there are old park-like Indian 
clearings, partly overspread with oak and elm, which although 
they have sprung up naturally, have the appearance of orna- 
mental plantations. The whole district is covered with forests, 
and Canadian settlers would find themselves in a country similar 
in many respects t-* the land of their nativity. Nor does the 
climate difier essentially from that of the most favoured parts 
of Ontario or Quebec. Wheat was successfully grown for 
many years at Fort Frances, both by the old North- West 
Company and their successors, the Hudson Bay Company. 
The Indians still cultivate maize on little farms on Rainy Lake 
and Lake of the Woods. In many places the wild grape grows 
in extraordinary profusion, yielding fruit which comes to per- 
fection in the fall. Wild rice, which requires a high summer 
temperature, is abundant, and indeed the flora, taken generally, 
indicates a climate in every way well adapted to the growth 
of cereals. 

" The Lake of the Woods receives the drainage of an area 
which may be approximately estimated at 33,600 square miles. 
In this vast district there are, of course, considerable varieties 
of climate, soil, and natural productions ; but I desire expressly 
to draw attention to the fact that it reaches n<^arly to the 
northern and north-western limits of the growth of pine wood 
of the class known in Ontario and Quebec as red and white 
pine — that is, in the region eastward of the great prairies. 
Within this district, on the streams tributary to Rainy Ijake, 
there are in many places extensive groves of both red and 
white yjine, of a size and quality well adapted to all the pur- 
poses for which such timber is usually applied. On the 
alluvial belt of Rainy River white pine of a large size is to be 
seen, interspersed with other descriptions of forest trees, and 
on the islands of the Lake of the Woods and main land to the 
north and east there are occasionally pine groves of moderate 
extent ; but on proceeding to the north, by way of the Winni- 
peg, it gradually becomes more rare until, on rci 'hing Lake 
Winni])eg, it finally disappears." 



23 



Verbai. and o;i^hek testimon^y to the 
same effect. 

Verbal and written testimony of a similar nature to the 
above has reached me from many sources, but the limits of 
this sketch do not permit its presentation. Judge Lyon 
and the Rey. , Mr. Halstead, Rat Portage ; Hugh Sutherland, 
M. P., Winnipeg; Sheriff Clarke, Thunder Bay; W. H. Simpson, 
Sault St. Marie ; R. A. Lyon, M.P.P., Manitoulin, and other 
well known residents, all unite in describing the whole of the 
vast region frcmi' Spanish River to the Northwest Angle to be, 
from all standpoints, " much better than it looks." 

Reference might also be briefly made to the admirable 
location and excellent prospects of several rising towns in the 
territory, notably Sault St. Marie, picturesquely situated upon 
the connecting link between Lakes Huron and Superior, and 
destined to be an important railway point ; Port Arthur, with 
its really grand location on Thunder Bay, and rapidly rising 
to be the most important of Western Canadian shipping ports, 
besides beirg also a chief railway centre ; and Rat Portage 
beautifully situated on the Lake of the Woods and designed by 
nature for a pretty and popular summer resoi't. Nor should the 
value of Northwestern Ontario as a pleasant place of resort for 
summer tourists be lightly estimated. The shores and islands of 
Lakes Huron and Superior, and the rugged, rock-bound 
and tree-girdled points and islands of Lake of the 
Woods, Rainy Lake and Rainy River; not less than the 
countless Lakelets, Rivers and Falls, which meet the eye 
continuously from Thunder Bay to the Western Boundary 
of Ontario, afford to Canadians a variety of pictur- 
esque scenery,and facilities for fishing, boating and hunting equal 
to any that can be enjoyed within easy reach on this continent. 
With well-equipped and carefully managed steamboat lines, 
and the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which 
v^ll in two or three years more traverse nearly the whole terri- 
tory, Canadians may soon enjoy, under their " own vine and 
fig tree," well nigh all the beauties and comforts to be had in 
a tour of the St. Lawrence or the Lakes of Muskoka. 

But the one great drawback, the present chief bari*ier to 



24 



a sjieotly developiiicnt and early settlement of this vast terri- 
t(ny, is the unsettled boundary question. Until that has been 
liiiaJly disposed of, its gold and silver mines, so attraetivc for 
investment, will lie dormant : eapitalists will eontinue to shun 
the timber resources of the territory ; and the sturdy settler, 
Nvlij, rather than betake himself to the boundless i)rairie, 
w ould prefer to hew out for himself a home where the gun, the 
rod and the canoe may relieve the monotony of his agricul- 
tural pursuits, will refuse to risk the fruits of his honest toil 
in a no man's land," where the title to his heritage is a sub- 
ject of doubt and controversy. 

That so serious, vexatious, and deplorable a barrier to 
Provincial progress and inter-Provincial amity between two 
members of Confederation, -may be peacefully and speedily 
removed, must be the sincere desire and earnest prayer of all 
patriotic Canadians. 

O. R. PATTULLO, 
Ontario Commissioner, 

Rat 1\)Kta(.;e, Ontario, .Sc|)t- 12, 1883. 




JEWELERS 

— AN n — 

ENGRAVERS 

SOUTH WATEKST., PORT ARTHUR. 

^^^^^^ALWAYS ON HAND^^—- 

JEWELRY flNn PLATEn-WAHE. 




WINNIPEG, MAN. 



The Largest and Finest Jewelry Establish- 
ment in the Canadian Nurtiiwesti 



J L 



BRO„ 



dor. flrtbur (Iumbc^lan^ St£5. 



-UF- 



STAPLE AND FANCY 



1' ^ 
1 



READY-MADE CLOTHING 



cob cV ^fioe.>, 



LIQUORS, ETC, 




Col. Arthur and Cuniberlaiul SU, Port Arthur. 




^bc Xca&in(; ?roun£>t6' an& (Bom** 
mcrcial Ibouec. 



JOHN SINCLAIR, PROP, 




ARTHUR STREET. 

(Port yanTHUii. 



s 



ONS 




RAT PORTAGE 



JAS, GORE, - PROPRIETOR 



FREE 'BUS TD ANfl FHDM ALL TRAINS. 

TERMS MODERATE 



M, McQUARRIE 



^xmtxtt^ 



DEALER IN 



NES,. LIQUORS, Etc 



amp ©utttSi and i^oat I'MppUcsi a .^pccialtit 



MAIN STREET, - RAT PORTAGE, 



THE PALACE HOTEL 



GREAT SUMMER RESORToft^f- NORTH-WEST 

RAT PORTAGE. 



TERMS, $2.00 PER DAY. 

FREE 'BUS TO AND FROM ALL TRAINS. 



G. A. KOBOLl). 



A. P. KOBOLD. 



G, A, KOBOLD & BRO. 
(^ c 11 c t at i I t ell e r^^ 



PROVISION MERCHANTS 



MAIN STREET, 



RAT PORTAGE, 



•DEALKIIS IN- 



FRESH AND CURED MEATS 

ANn VEGETABLES, 



REAL ESTATE, MINING AND INSURANCE. 



-P. O. BOX 4 - 



S, S. SCOVIL, C.M..M.D 



OFFICE AND RESIDENCE, MAIN ST, 

Next Duoi to ManiiiiiLS McDonald & McLareri'.v Store. 



DIGNUM & SINCLAIR, 

MONEY LOANED ON FIRST-CLASS MORTGAGE SECURITY. 
355 MAIN STREET, - > WINNIPEG, MAN. 

N. B. Mr. Dignum was late Manager of rlie oftit-e of Kerr Anderson, Accountants, Real 
Estate Agents, ^c, Toronto. 

Winnii)e}; References— D. S. .Nfiller. Ki-q ., Manager Merchants' Bank; McArtJuir & Dexter, 
Barristers, etc. Toronto References— Kerr & Ander.son ; Elias Hogers A- Co.: Samuel Rogers & Co. 



(Eanabian B^actfic IRailwa^. 



AT LOWEST RATES 

For all points in Canada andthe United .States. Tinic tables and reliable information 
as to routes and connections niav be obtained from G. H. CAMPBELL. Ticket " g^m 
CIMJ. Station, or 11 . G. Mc:Nr!('lvEN. C"ity Ticket A^ent. 171 Main St.. Winnipeg. 

JOHN M. EGAN, WM. HARDER, 

(ierieral Superintendent. Ass't-Trattie Manager. 



f NORTHWEST TRANSPORTATIQN'CQT^ ) 

(LIMIT ED.) 

Conir>risiiig the follc)\vin<; powerful and best ('([uipped steamers on the lakes: — 
I'nitcd Empire. Ontario. Quebec and Mani(ol)A. Leav ing Sarnia (weather pei'niit- 
lingl every Tue-day and Friday at !l )>. m., Koing west, and Tort Artlmr every Mon- 
day aiirl Tliursdax o a-'ri \ at of train from the w sr .Vlauitoba' will lea\ e \V''iri(i- 
.sor M'ltiday. June -IMv. and e\ ery following ten da,\s. calling at Sarnia for .Alichi|)ico- 
ten, ^'ic, Nepigoii. PoiM Art Inir. and all intermcdiaic i)oi ts each way. 'i'h(; I 'an^diciu 
Pacific ar<' running trains daily froui I'ort Arthui- 1o ^\'innipeg and west. Jiates 
and full information can be had from all (Trand Trunk agents. 

VV. F. UAN IDSON. <\8-enf. Porr Arthur: .lAMES H. HEATTV. Gen'l Mana- 
ger. Sarnia; M. AS KIN. General Agent. Sarnia: S aM. OSJ?()fL\ E & CO.. Agents, 
^■onge street. Toronto. 



The evening HERALD 



Published every lawful ev ening, at Port Arthur, Out., by the 



Evening Herald Printing and Publishing Company, 

(LrMFTEI),) 
AT THEIR OFFICE, ARTHUR STREET. 



Terms— Fifty cents per month : sii\gle copies. .') cents. 



^ml ^^Unthuiv^tfvn o>ntavio ^Uiniiu^ and Xwmbrvinn iUcovil. 

Is published c\ er\' Friday afternoon, at Pat Port \;.r<\ in the Province of Ontario, 
by the Argus Printing and PTiblishing Coin])an\ , Jiiimted- 'I'ernis of subscription 
Single co))ies, delivered or mailed to any part of the Dominion, the Lnited States or 
Great Uritain. per annum. Si.v months, SI . Three mont i>s. (iO cents. Payments 
strictly in advance. Advertising Rates Transient advertising will be (;harged 10 
cents per line tor t>'e first insertion. Scale, solid nonpareil, twetv e lines being ecpiiv - 
ulent to one inch. Special rates ([noted lor contract advertisijig. 

Address for furtlu'r particulars 

ARGUS PRINTING & PUBI ISHING CO., 

Rat Portage. Ontario, Canada. 




MONTREAL AND WINNIPEG, 




City and Miiiiicipal Bonds Bought and Sold. 

REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS ATTENDEDTO 

DUNDEE INVESTMENT CO., Llmited. 
DUNDEE MOKTGAdE AND TRUST INVKST- 

MENT CO., LiMiTKi). 
NORTHERN ASSURANCE CO. 

co:r:r:es:poi^xd:e]i.-tts : 

MEssiiS. JESUP, PATON S:^ CO., NEW YORK. 

J. B. (LARNEGIE CO., DUBLIN. 

PANMTLHE (K)RDON & CO., LONDON- 
^' J. C. VAN PUT & CO., ANTWERP. 
WILLIAM MACKENZIE, ESQ., DUNDEE. 



MONTREAL & WESTERN LAND CO. 

(Lniri'ED.; 

FREE &RANT LANDS 

( an be seciirod by applii iition at llie ( oinTJanx s Montreal. A^'iuiii ' r or Strathallan 
urtiees, wliere Tlic hillest inlovnialion about tluiii wili be fitv .y given. 

1Hortl>Me6t 1R ovulation Cornpan^'s Stcanicrc^ 

h'l'ciiilit t:\ken for l^akr Winnip'-i;-. IM-ince XlbeiT, and all points 
on til' Ci-eat Srtskatcli'-wan (T. 

x:)i:^TT:bvCn^on>TiD bibothzek-s <sz oo. 

Dundee Block, Main Street, Winnipeg 



The Cereal and Mineral Exhibit. 



Because of the I'eceut date at which the pic-Liit exliihit of cereals- 
and minerals from Northwestern Ontario was proposed and author- 
ized, it has been found quite impossible to make an adepuate collec- 
tion. The difficulty of doing so will be readily ap})areiit when it is 
remembered that the territory is about .a thousand miles long, and 
that the facilities for transport are rather infrequent and uncertain. 
Then too, the season being late, grain was not ripe and could not be 
procured in time. Despite these drawbacks, however, it is hoped that 
the collection, especially of minerals, here presented, and which have 
been secured by the voluntary aid and ready co-operation of ])rominent 
citizens in the several localities, may be of service in giving to the 
Eastern public a more adequate and accurate idea of the immense and, 
it is believed, inexhaustible mineral resources of this section of Ontario, 
and which only await the tap of the miner to yield a rich harvest 
for investment. 

G. R. PATTULLO, 

Ontario Commissioner. 



M 



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